This begins affecting you before anything else. One of the heaviest influences, most prominent during school years. Influences mostly your behavior work ethic, punctuality, etc. A generally passive but constant factor this includes religion, ethnic identity.
The family from a child development perspective Theories of child development, which approach the family from the child perspective, include concerns with nature versus nurture, the flexibility or plasticity of the child at different ages to being moulded by the family, and the relative Agents of socialization of family influences Kreppner and Lerner The development of the child is viewed as following a probabilistic epigenetic course - according to which, biology remains a prime mover but the developmental results depend on reciprocal interaction between biology and the social context, and hence on the probability that biological sensitive points in the child and the social and environmental resources of the family will come together to produce certain outcomes Lerner This approach to the family elaborates theories regarding family factors as determinants of child outcome that have been useful in the design of such social interventions as the Head Start Program, later championed by Lerner.
It includes the investigation of psychological resilience, or why some children thrive in adverse circumstances.
Exploration of family effects often is reduced to the examination of dyadic parent-child interactions, usually focusing on the mother-child dyed, with little attention to family dynamics.
The Bronfenbrenner model Bronfenbrenner placed child development in an ecological perspective. His ground-breaking work combined aspects of sociology and developmental psychology and laid an enduring foundation for future approaches.
The relationships between individuals and their environments are viewed as "mutually shaping. In studying human development, one has to see within, beyond, and "across" how the several systems interact family, workplace, and economy. The study of the ability of families to access and manage resources across these systems would appear to be a logical extension of his investigations.
His four interlocking systems that shape individual development are as follows: At this level the family enters Bronfenbrenner's framework, but only in terms of its interpersonal interactions with the child. It is the level within which a child experiences immediate interactions with other people.
At the beginning, the micro-system is the home, involving interactions with only one or two people in the family "dyadic" or "triadic" interaction. As the child ages, the microsystem is more complex, involving more people - such as in a child-care centre or preschool. Bronfenbrenner noted that as long as increased numbers in a child's micro-system mean more enduring reciprocal relationships, increasing the size of the system will enhance child development.
Meso-systems are the interrelationships among settings i. The stronger and more diverse the links among settings, the more powerful an influence the resulting systems will be on the child's development. In these interrelationships, the initiatives of the child, and the parents' involvement in linking the home and the school, play roles in determining the quality of the child's meso-system.
The quality of interrelationships among settings is influenced by forces in which the child does not participate, but which have a direct bearing on parents and other adults who interact with the child.
These may include the parental workplace, school boards, social service agencies, and planning commissions. Macro-systems are "blueprints" for interlocking social forces at the macro-level and their interrelationships in shaping human development.
They provide the broad ideological and organizational patterns within which the meso- and exo-systems reflect the ecology of human development. Macro-systems are not static, but might change through evolution and revolution.
For example, economic recession, war, and technological changes may produce such changes. Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework proved a useful starting point for multivariate systems research in which family considerations became secondary to the design of institution-based social programmes focusing on children.
The Belsky process model Belsky pioneered theories of the processes of competent parental functioning. His model focused on factors affecting parental behaviour and how such factors affect child-rearing, which in turn influences child development.
At the family level, Belsky's interest, like Bronfenbrenner's, is primarily on interpersonal interactions between parent and child. Developed to explain the causes of child abuse and neglect, The model presumes that parenting is directly influenced by forces emanating from within the individual parent personalitywithin the individual child child characteristics of individualityand from the broader social context in which the parent-child relationship is embedded.
Specifically, marital relations, social networks, and jobs influence individual personality and general psychological well-being of parents and, thereby, parental functioning and, in turn, child development. Belsky84 Through an intensive literature search, Belsky drew the following conclusions regarding the determinants of parenting Belsky84 1 parenting is multiply determined by characteristics of the parent, of the child, and of contextual subsystems of social support; 2 these three determinants are not equally influential in supporting or undermining parenting; and 3 developmental history and personality shape parenting indirectly, by first influencing the broader context in which parent-child relations exist i.
Belsky found that parental personality and psychological wellbeing were the most influential of the determinants in supporting parental functioning.
When two of three determinants are in the stressful situation, he stated that parental functioning is most protected when parental personality and psychological well-being still function to promote sensitive caring. In other words, optimal parenting still occurs even when the personal psychological resources of parents are the only determinant remaining in positive mode.
The influence of contextual subsystems of social support is greater than the influence of child characteristics on parental functioning. On the basis of his review of the literature, Belsky determined that risk characteristics in the child are relatively easy to overcome, given that either one of the other two determinants is not at risk.
The Belsky process model does not specifically define the child's developmental outcome Belsky defined it as competent offspring, without any further explanation. No special attention is given to the importance of the family's material resources, while the family's social resources are conceptualized impersonally as the contextual subsystem of support.
Belsky's work is most useful in exonerating the child of blame for poor outcomes. Blame, however, might seem to shift to the parent, as parental personality is viewed as a relatively transcendent or intrinsic and immutable characteristic.
The optimal development of a young child requires an environment ensuring gratification of all basic physical needs and careful provisions for health and safety. The development of a young child is fostered by the following:Political Socialization in Nigeria - This essay is aimed to examine one of the agents of political socialisation for the way in which it operates and the effects it may have in Nigeria.
Socialization and the Learning of Gender Roles - The term socialization refers to the “lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture.” [Macionis et al.
p 55] The concept of socialization is that our actions are driven/learned by culture. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.
Agents of socialization are the people and groups that influence one's self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and regardbouddhiste.com agents of socialization include the family, schools, the media, religion, the workplace, and the government.. The family. Peer Socialization in School wm " " " " " " m" " " "ALTLTHOUGH the student group is a valuable educational resource, it remains an untapped potential in the curriculum of.
The socialization that we receive in childhood has a lasting effect on our ability to interact with others in society. In this lesson, we identify and discuss four of the most influential agents.