In the "Comment on James Mill"Marx explained alienation thus: Let us suppose that we had carried out production as human beings.
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of Summary: In this arrangement, the workers not only suffer impoverishment but also experience an estrangement or alienation from the world. This estrangement occurs because the worker relates to the product of his work as an object alien and even hostile to himself.
The worker puts his life into the object and his labor is invested in the object, yet because the worker does not own the fruits of his labor, which in capitalism are appropriated from him, he becomes more estranged the more he produces.
Everything he makes contributes to a world outside of him to which he does not belong. He shrinks in comparison to this world of objects that he helps create but does not possess. This first type of alienation is the estrangement of the worker from the product of his work.
The second type of alienation is the estrangement of the worker from the activity of production. The work that the worker performs does not belong to the worker but is a means of survival that the worker is forced to perform for someone else. As such, his working activity does not spring spontaneously from within as a natural act of creativity but rather exists outside of him and signifies a loss of his self.
For human beings, work amounts to a life purpose. The process of acting on and transforming inorganic matter to create things constitutes the core identity of the human being. A person is what he or she does in transforming nature into objects through practical activity.
But in the modern system of private ownership and the division of labor, the worker is estranged from this essential source of identity and life purpose for the human species. For example, the concept of species-being, of what it means to be human, is essentially a philosophical question.
In these early manuscripts, Marx reveals himself as the great philosopher of work, which he sees as a process of transforming physical matter raw materials into objects of sustenance.
In capitalism, which is founded on the principle of private property, work as a source of identity and location is seriously undermined. Those without property namely, workers in factories, etc. This is not only inherently frustrating and unsatisfying but also turns workers against the capitalists and the system of private property that is the source of their frustration.To turn to the details of Marx’ Theory of Alienation: The most basic form of workers’ alienation is their estrangement from the process of their work.
An artist, unlike an industrial worker, typically works under his or her own direction; artists are in total control of their work. The second controversial application of Marx's theory of alienation is in the formulation of an analysis of other activities outside the sphere of work, which we undertake through choice rather than necessity.
Marx’s theory of alienation is the process by which social organized productive powers are experienced as external or alien forces that dominate the humans that create them. He believes that production is man’s act on nature and on himself.
DIALECTICAL MARXISM: The Writings of Bertell Ollman contains selections from Ollman's work on Marxist theory, dialectics, alienation, class consciousness, class struggle, communism, socialist pedagogy, radical humor, and political science.
The Theory of Alienation: Marx's Debt to Hegel, Raya Dunayevskaya Alienation, George Novack Fetishism, George Novack Alienation in Capitalist Society, Cornelius Castoriadis, The Alienation of Modern Man.
An Interpretation Based on Marx And Tönnies, Pappenheim, A summary of Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of in 's Karl Marx (–). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Karl Marx (–) and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.