Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like?
Meeting of victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with a penis, other body part or object.
If perpetrated during childhood, sexual violence can lead to increased smoking,  drug and alcohol misuse, and risky sexual behaviors in later life. It is also associated with perpetration of violence and being a victim of violence.
Many of the risk factors for sexual violence are the same as for domestic violence. Risk factors specific to sexual violence perpetration include beliefs in family honor and sexual purity, ideologies of male sexual entitlement and weak legal sanctions for sexual violence.
Few interventions to prevent sexual violence have been demonstrated to be effective. School-based programmes to prevent child sexual abuse by teaching children to recognize and avoid potentially sexually abusive situations are run in many parts of the world and appear promising, but require further research.
To achieve lasting change, it is important to enact legislation and develop policies that protect women; address discrimination against women and promote gender equality; and help to move the culture away from violence. Elder abuse Elder maltreatment is a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person.
This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and includes physicalsexualpsychologicalemotional; financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect ; and serious loss of dignity and respect. Data on the extent of the problem in institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes and other long-term care facilities are scarce.
Elder maltreatment can lead to serious physical injuries and long-term psychological consequences. Elder maltreatment is predicted to increase as many countries are experiencing rapidly ageing populations.
Many strategies have been implemented to prevent elder maltreatment and to take action against it and mitigate its consequences including public and professional awareness campaigns, screening of potential victims and abuserscaregiver support interventions e.
Their effectiveness has, however, not so far been well-established. These studies — investigated what the authors called "targeted violence," described the "path to violence" of those who planned or carried out attacks and laid out suggestions for law enforcement and educators.
A major point from these research studies is that targeted violence does not just "come out of the blue". Its causes are complex and occur at different levels. To represent this complexity, the ecological, or social ecological model is often used.
The following four-level version of the ecological model is often used in the study of violence: The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence: For intimate partner violence, a consistent marker at this level of the model is marital conflict or discord in the relationship.
In elder abuseimportant factors are stress due to the nature of the past relationship between the abused person and the care giver. The third level explores the community context—i. Risk at this level may be affected by factors such as the existence of a local drug trade, the absence of social networks, and concentrated poverty.
All these factors have been shown to be important in several types of violence. Finally, the fourth level looks at the broad societal factors that help to create a climate in which violence is encouraged or inhibited: Child-rearing[ edit ] Cross-cultural studies have shown that greater prevalence of corporal punishment of children tends to predict higher levels of violence in societies.
For instance, a analysis of pre-industrial societies found that corporal punishment was more prevalent in societies which also had higher rates of homicide, assault, and war. Straus believes that disciplinary spanking forms "the most prevalent and important form of violence in American families", whose effects contribute to several major societal problems, including later domestic violence and crime.
Neurobiologist Jan Volavka emphasizes that, for those purposes, "violent behavior is defined as intentional physically aggressive behavior against another person. Among prehistoric humans, there is archaeological evidence for both contentions of violence and peacefulness as primary characteristics.
For example, in a state where execution is a legalized punishment we do not typically perceive the executioner as "violent", though we may talk, in a more metaphorical way, of the state acting violently.
Likewise, understandings of violence are linked to a perceived aggressor-victim relationship: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence" write that violence is inherent in humans, though not inevitable.
Ury, editor of a book called "Must We Fight?Causes, protective and risk factors Gender inequality and discrimination are root causes of violence against women, influenced by the historical and structural power imbalances between women and men which exist in varying degrees across all communities in the world.
What Are the Causes of Poverty in Iran? In , about 80 percent of people in Iran were impoverished. Poverty in Iran can lead to a variety of other issues, including negative effects on the mental health of the country’s youth.
Mental health issues in Iranians are found to be linked to a plethora of factors, economic pressure being one of them.
Addressing Violent Crime against the Poor O righteous God, who searches minds and hearts, bring to an end the violence of the wicked and make the righteous secure.
The Causes of Violence and the Effects of Violence On Community and Individual Health • Data collection and analysis • Determining root causes • Determining affects and consequences • Prevention strategies, mitigation and programs communities gang crime and violence may represent a .
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of.
Home» Crime Causes Effect Essay Examples. Crime Causes Effect Essay Examples. Are you in High This is because the underlying causes of crime depend on the biological and psychological state of the individual, as well as the social circles in which the individual resides.
media violence, poor parenting, corruption and generational.