Why a Balkan War?
The Western Front quickly stabilized, with almost no movement of more than a few hundred yards. The greatest single expenditure on both sides was for artillery shells, the chief weapon in the war. Since the front was highly stable, both sides built elaborate railway networks that brought supplies within a mile or two of the front lines, with horse-drawn wagons used for the final deliveries.
In the ten-month battle at Verdun, the French and Germans fired some 10 million shells in all, weighing 1.
Britain paid the war costs of most of its Allies until it ran out of money, then the US took over, funding those Allies and Britain as well. The War saw a decline of civilian consumption, with a major reallocation to munitions.
The annual output of artillery grew from 91 guns in to in Warplanes soared from in to inwhile the production of machine guns went from toMost of the energy supplies came from coal mines in Britain, where the issue was labour supply.
Critical however was the flow of oil for ships, lorries and industrial use. There were no oil wells in Britain so everything was imported. Intotal British consumption was million barrels, of which 85 percent was supplied by the United States, and 6 percent by Mexico.
Convoys and the construction of new tankers solved the German threat, while tight government controls guaranteed that all essential needs were covered.
Archbold between May and September. The only solution to the crisis lay with increased oil shipment from America. The close working relationship that evolved was in marked contrast to the feud between the government and Standard Oil years earlier.
In andthere was increased domestic demand for oil partly due to the cold winter that created a shortage of coal. Inventories and imported oil from Mexico were used to close the gap.
In Januarythe U. Fuel Administrator ordered industrial plants east of Mississippi to close for a week to free up oil for Europe. Inthe Royal Navy consumed 12, tons a month, but had a supply of 30, tons a month from the Anglo-Persian Oil Companyusing their oil wells in Persia. They expanded by a third during the war, primarily to produce transports of the sort that German U-boats were busy sinking.
But after the war, employment tumbled as the yards proved too big, too expensive, and too inefficient; in any case world demand was down. The most skilled craftsmen were especially hard hit, because there were few alternative uses for their specialized skills.
Ireland and World War I Ireland was on the verge of civil war in after Parliament voted a home rule law that was intensely opposed by the Protestants, especially those in Ulster.
When the war broke out the law was suspended and Protestants gave very strong support for the war in terms of military service and industrial output.
At the outbreak of the war, most Irish people, regardless of political affiliation, supported the war in much the same way as their British counterparts,  and both nationalist and unionist leaders initially backed the British war effort. Their followers, both Catholic and Protestant, served extensively in the British forces, many in three specially raised divisions.
OverIrishmen fought in the war, in several theatres with 30, deaths. InCatholic supporters of Irish independence from the United Kingdom took the opportunity of the ongoing war to proclaim an Irish Republic and to defend it in an armed rebellion against British rule in Dublin.
The rebellion was poorly planned and quickly suppressed. The British executed most of the prisoners which caused Catholic opinion to surge in favour of independence.
The Asian and African colonies provided large numbers of civilian workers, as well as some soldiers. Over one million Indian troops served overseas, of whom 62, died and another 67, were wounded.
Conscription Crisis of and Canadian women in the World Wars Canada was prosperous during the war but ethnic conflict escalated almost out of control. In terms of long-run economic trends, the war hardly affected the direction or the speed of change.
The trajectory of the main economic factors, the business and financial system, and the technology continued on their way.Germany declares war on France and, following the Schlieffen Plan, attacks Belgium. 4 August Britain keeps the promise made in a treaty of to defend Belgium, and declares war on Germany.
World War I summary: The war fought between July 28, , and November 11, , was known at the time as the Great War, the War to End War, and (in the United States) the European War. Only when the world went to war again in the s and ’40s did the earlier conflict become known as the First.
World War I: World War I, international conflict that in –18 embroiled most of the nations of Europe along with Russia, the U.S., the Middle East, and other regions.
The economic history of World War I covers the methods used by the First World War (–), as well as related postwar issues such as war debts and reparations. It also covers the economic. Section 2: Historical Evolution of Epidemiology.
Although epidemiology as a discipline has blossomed since World War II, epidemiologic thinking has been traced from Hippocrates through John Graunt, William Farr, John Snow, and others.
The contributions of some of these early and more recent thinkers are described below. Circa B.C. First World regardbouddhiste.com - A multimedia history of world war one.