Overview[ edit ] In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied.
For example, the two diseases that kill the greatest percentage of adults in the United States across all ethnic and racial categories—cancer and cardiovascular disease—have strong links to risk-taking lifestyle behavioral influences.
Relevant research on risk taking, however, can be found throughout a variety of disciplines e. The research that is conducted can focus on either risk taking in laboratory tasks or on real-life applied behaviors. In a laboratory task, risk taking can be defined as choosing a gamble when a safe option is available, such as when a safe option is of equal expected value.
In both contexts, taking risks involves choosing courses of action that carry with them greater uncertainty and, among the uncertain outcomes, carry possible negative outcomes relative to the alternative actions. The extent of the relationship between laboratory tasks and real-life behavior is one of the empirical questions that are investigated in the risk-taking literature, and such relationships are observed.
Theoretical perspectives on risk taking can range from those that characterize mature decision making as cold, deliberative, and resulting from analytical processes that eschew emotion in the quantitative weighing of risks and benefits, to those that emphasize nondeliberative intuitive reaction to perceived prototypes or gists of decision options.
This article examines risk taking according to these multiple perspectives, as well as implications for how to mitigate risks.
Journals Among specific psychological journals in which articles on risk taking can be found, some are particularly relevant to the study of risk taking because of the high-quality level of the publications, including Psychological ReviewPsychological ScienceJournal of Personality and Social Psychologyand Journal of Experimental Psychology: The first two journals provide high-level theoretical discussion of decision-making processes that are key to risk taking.
The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology covers several topics that influence risk taking, including behavior, affect, and motivation, while the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General includes articles that cover implications of risk from a variety of psychological perspectives.
Other publications, such as Organization Behavior and Human Decision ProcessesJournal of Behavioral Decision Makingand Judgment and Decision Makinginclude papers concerning human decision-making processes, which are key to understanding the mechanisms that underlie risk taking.
Finally, Risk Analysis is dedicated solely to risk. The journals listed in this section were included due to their high rate of relevant publications in the risk-taking literature. Although the journal is not dedicated specifically to risk, it often supplies various decision aids that work to enhance rational decision making, and hence mitigate risky behavior.Social sciences Disciplines related to sociology that study human activity and communication, including psychology, anthropology, economics, political science.
Social stratification The fairly permanent ranking of positions in a society in terms of unequal power, prestige, or privilege. An experimental study involves taking Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, social science, sociology and. Recognised as a tool in many social science studies, the role of case study method in reconstruction and analysis An example of a descriptive case study using.
· Perform a content analysis of texts or They will recognize that sociology is a science: When sociologists measure one variable taking into.
Start studying Ch 2 Sociological Investigation. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
"Science must begin with myths and with the criticisms of myths."? -Positivist sociology object to taking sides-critical sociologists reply that all .
Imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a survey. As you record the data, you are using the concept "age" as A variable.