Direct military conflict did not occur between the two superpowers, but intense economic and diplomatic struggles erupted.
The reorientation of Soviet foreign policy under Mikhail Gorbachev caused the East-West reconciliation, and attempts of the explanation of this fact led to the scholars challenge. Neither realists, liberals, institutionalists, nor peace researchers recognized beforehand the possibility such momentous change, and they have all been struggling to find explanations consistent with their theories.
Lebow Most theorists and policy analysts assured that bipolarity, meaning Soviet-American rivalry, would be preserved for the foreseeable future. Therefore everybody was surprised when the Soviet Union changed course in its foreign policy, retreated from Eastern Europe, and allowed constituent republics to secede — and did all this peacefully, without any aggression.
Author accuses his scholar opponents of ignoring careful conceptual and operational definitions of dependent and independent variables, which is essential for every testable theory.
The realist paradigm is based on the core assumption that anarchy is the defining characteristic of the international system.
Anarchy compels states to make security their paramount concern and to seek to increase power as against other values. Power is defined as capability relative to other states.
In his opinion, core assumption of anarchy has no theoretical content and cannot be used for a testable proposition. Thereof the author suggests the need for alternative approaches to the study of international relations. But without dismantling the command economy and encouraging the private capitalist ventures, in opinion of author, Soviet Union voluntarily ended the bipolarity, because of internal and external pressures.
Lebow Even before the collapse of the Soviet Union, U.
Defense Department studies showed that Japan, the United States, and Western Europe were steadily increasing their lead over the Soviet Union in the development and application of almost all the technologies critical to military power and performance.
Post-Soviet Russia is in a demonstrably weaker position. It exploded an atomic device inbut Britain also possessed the knowledge to produce nuclear weapons. What distinguished the Soviet Union from Britain, Lebow highlights, was its population and size; but this, to his mind, had always been so and did not make the Soviet Union a superpower before World War.
The Soviet Union did field a massive army, but it had proportionately larger forces than everyone else in The postwar Red Army was capable of little beyond its primary mission of occupation. Lebow publishes the facts that U. Author emphasizes, that until at least the mids, if not later, there was little the Soviet Union could do to damage the United States, while throughout this period it was vulnerable to nuclear attack by long-range U.
The year or the period, that the Soviet Union acquired superpower status is unimportant, claims Richard Lebow. According to his researches, the USSR was not a superpower in the late s and early s. The great power peace that survived the tensest and the most famous stage of the Cold War — the years of the Czech coup, the first Berlin crisis and blockade, and the Korean War — cannot be attributed to bipolarity, as author had proved before.
A Soviet leader was in a dire situation, realizing, that the decline of economy and international pressure had become inevitable for the retrenchment and weakening of the USSR impact in the Eastern Europe.
In opinions of most realists, Gorbachev had nothing but to follow a policy of accommodation and to comply with the U. Moreover, in the end of s the USA had succeeded in making alliances, especially it applies to overwhelming unification with Germany.
This step was made due to liberal ideas of Gorbachev, who defended the principles of non-interference in the policy of the other independent states. Last Soviet leader tried to preserve superpower of a communist empire not only by military methods, but primarily by effective decisions in a foreign policy.
But stasis, begun at his predecessors, enormous fraction of GDP on military costs and Marxist ideology crisis implacably resulted in the end of the Cold War.It led Stalin to think deeply.
As a result of which suspicion became wider between Soviet Russia and western countries and thus the Cold War took birth. Causes of the Cold War: Various causes are responsible for the outbreak of the Cold War.
At first, the difference between Soviet Russia and USA led to the Cold War. The Cold War was the clash of cultures between the United States and the Soviet Union that coloured many major geopolitical events in the latter half of the twentieth century.
This included decolonization and neocolonialism, especially in African states. Kwame Nkrumah noted that neocolonialism is. - Cold War Introduction: The end of World War II did not end the disputed but unexpectedly causing the conflict between allied countries, led .
Effects of the Cold War in Nicaragua Essays Words | 5 Pages. The Cold War was a period in history right after WWII ended and it ended in , when the USSR broke apart. The conflict was between two types of governments: the communists and the capitalism (democrats).
The USSR represented the communist side, while the U.S.
represented . Essay on The End of the Cold War Words | 7 Pages. The end of the Cold War brought about the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, paving the way for an unprecedented new paradigm – one characterised by the end of hostilities between the two dominant ideologies: Soviet communism and American liberal capitalism.
When looking at the Cold War in general or in relation to Asia, it is important to understand that a conflict lasting a long period may go through changes, especially in cases of Cold War. Cold War Essay.
By Lauren Bradshaw. April 24, Sample Essays. At the end of World War II Asia had been left in a power vacuum Japans .